Gynecology is a significant division of medicine that primarily deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases pertaining to the female reproductive system and related organs, like uterus, vagina, fallopian tubes and ovaries. Gynecology has dealt with several varied conditions like cancer and pre-cancerous problems of the reproductive organs including ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, vagina, amenorrhoea (absence of menstrual periods), dysmenorrhoea (painful menstrual periods), infertility, menorrhagia (heavy menstrual periods), fibroids, stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and infections of the female genital tract.
Types of Gynecology Treatment
The surgery is done under either local or general anesthesia. A small telescope is put into the uterus to monitor the shape and size of the inner lining of the uterus and diagnose problems like adhesions, septum, polyps or fibroids.
A Polyp is a non-malignant enlargement in the endometrium. It has usual symptoms of irregular menstrual cycles, heavy bleeding or infertility. In general, a polyp can be taken out by scissors or electric instruments called the resectoscope.
The uterine walls are sometimes caused to stick to each other because of fibrous or vascular strands and this gynaecological problem is called adhesions. The cavity can be entirely demolished in acutely major cases. The general symptoms are lesser menstruation, absent menses, repetitive miscarriage or even infertility. These strands can be cut by scissors or an electric current through an operative hysteroscope.
Fibroids in the uterine cavity usually are the reason behind heavy menses, pain, dysmenorrhoea, regular miscarriage and infertility. The resectoscope is used to remove them.
Tubal blocks are caused by Mucous plugs, debris or thin membranes covering the tubal ostia. A fine catheter guided through the hysteroscope is generally used to open these blocks.
Foreign Body Removal
The uterine cavity sometimes has leftover broken Intrauterine Contraceptive Device (IUCD) or fetal bones from prior abortions causing irregular bleeding and infertility. An operative hysteroscope is usually used to remove these objects.
Diagnosis Laparoscopy in done under general anesthesia to observe the uterus, ovaries and insides of the pelvis by using a narrow telescope is passed through the belly button. If any abnormal condition is noted, operative laparoscopy is performed to correct the problem.
Fibrous strands sticking to the uterus, tubes, ovaries and bowel are called Adhesions. The adhesions happen due to infections. Majority of the cases have harmless adhesions. They can cause pain, dyspareunia and infertility. Scissors, electric current or laser is used to remove the adhesions.
A polycystic ovary is a problem in which the ovaries become bulky due to multiple follicles. Ultrasonography is employed to diagnose this problem. The outcome is irregular menses, obesity, excessive facial and body hair and infertility. If medicines don’t work, laparoscopic drilling of ovaries is the only way.
Hormonal imbalance or embryonic tumor results in cysts in the ovary. Most of them are non-malignant. Younger women who want to safeguard their fertility say yes to laparoscopical cystectomy.
Oophorectomy, procedure to remove entire ovary, is used to treat in case of ovarian cysts or tumors in the entire ovary.
Laparoscopy is the best fit for Endometrisis surgery as the diagnosis, staging and treatment of the disease is done in one setting through this procedure. The surgery preserves fertility in younger women who wish to conceive or preserve fertility.