Infertility refers to the inability to naturally conceive a child. Infertility treatment refers to procedure followed to help those having problems bearing a child.This problem may be in either man or woman, or both. It also refers to a condition of a woman when she is unable to carry a pregnancy to its full term.
Causes of Infertility
In a normal reproduction process proper interaction between the female and male reproductive system is required. Following are the causes of infertility (both men and women):
- Sperm problems
- Ovulation problems
- Tubal causes
- Age-related factors
- Unexplained infertility
Infertility Treatment Options
In case of irregular ovulation of females, medication is started for regulating the ovulation cycle and improving the egg quality.
IUI (Intra Uterine Insemination): A method where processed semen is placed directly in the uterus with the help of a catheter.
IVF (Invitro Fertilization): IVF is the fertilization of an ovum outside the body and then transferring fertilized ovum (embryo) into the uterus.
ICSI (Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection): In this process, a single sperm is injected into the cytoplasm of an egg for fertilization.
TESA (Testicular Sperm Aspiration): A surgical sperm harvesting technique.
Embryo Freezing Excess (Surplus): Embryos are Cryo-preserved at ultra-low temperatures for years to be used subsequently.
Semen/Sperm freezing: Semen/Sperm are stored frozen at ultra-low temperatures for long duration, useful in various conditions.
Types of Infertility
Primary Infertility: – It is that condition where a couple has not been able to conceive a pregnancy after at least a year of unprotected intercourse.
Secondary Infertility: – It is a condition where the couple has conceived or carried a pregnancy to term after naturally successfully conceiving one or more children.
Male Infertility : – It is a condition of infertility in males that refers to the absence of healthy sperms in the semen in order to meet ovum.
Female Infertility: – It is a state of infertility in females. It is important that all the reproductive organs in a female are in a perfect shape.
Diagnosis for Fertility:
For Male: Along with the necessary basic blood and urine examination, semen analysis is also done.
For Female : Routine tests like Rubella IgG levels, HIV , CBC, FBS, urine routine, TSH, / FSH / LH / Prolactin (Day 2 of the cycle), VDRL, Hepatitis B, and Blood grouping are done.
HSG (Hysterosalpingogram): Here an X-ray picture of the uterus (Hystero) and Fallopian tubes (Salpingo) is taken.
Trans-vaginal Ultra Sonogram: Undertaken for checking any abnormalities in the uterus, tubes and ovaries.
Laproscopic Hysteroscopy: Done to look into the interior aspects of the uterus with an endoscope.
Laparoscopy: Done for visualization of the peritoneal cavity using an endoscope.
Depending on the results, the course of treatment is decided.
Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) is the name given to Infertility treatments, which are formulated for increasing the number of eggs or sperm, bringing them together, and improving the chances of pregnancy.